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Pain Profiles

Pain Profiles: Ketamine for Analgesia

Today's post in the Pain Profiles series by Dr. David Cisewski evaluates a medication being used more and more in the ED: ketamine. How can you optimize your use of this medication for patient analgesia?

ultrasound

US Probe: E-Point Septal Separation (EPSS) in the CHF Patient

EPSS is a simple, easy to learn tool that allows a quick estimation of left ventricular function. The value of EPSS lies in its objective findings that do not require specialized training for interpretation and utilization, as shown by numerous studies. In patients without mitral or aortic valvular pathology, EPSS can be obtained from a single echocardiography view, providing quantifiable information on heart function within minutes. EPSS > 7mm is typically cited as the cut-off for abnormal ejection fraction (<50%). It offers a further tool for inexperienced emergency physicians that can be used to complement the overall assessment and risk stratification of patients with congestive heart failure.