EM Boards Survival Guide: Ophthalmology 1
- Feb 21st, 2019
- Alex Koyfman
Author: Alex Koyfman, MD (@EMHighAK) // Edited by: Brit Long, MD (@long_brit)
This week’s EM Board Survival Guide covers the scary eye and the must-knows for the inservice exam concerning ophthalmology. This post also features stellar artwork from Dr. Katy Hanson at Hanson’s Anatomy:
1) Dacryocystitis: Nasolacrimal duct obstruction +/- infection. Be able to identify what it looks like clinically.
2) Chalazion vs. Stye: Chalazion => blockage of gland which results in inflammation; Treatment: warm compresses, +/- erythromycn ointment, Ophtho referral for removal. Stye => infection of gland; Treatment: warm compresses, erythromycin ointment.
3) CRVO: Painless unilateral vision loss. Know classic funduscopic findings including “blood and thunder”.
4) CRAO: Painless unilateral vision loss. Know classic funduscopic findings including pale retina with cherry red spot. Stroke equivalent; perform ischemic stroke work-up.
5) UV keratitis: Classically skier or welder. Significant pain/photophobia. Exam with diffuse, punctate fluorescein uptake.
6) Chemical burns: Acid => less deep; coagulation necrosis. Alkali => aggressive and deep; liquefactive necrosis. Treatment: immediate irrigation until normal pH.
7) Neonatal conjunctivitis: 1-2 days => chemical; 2-5 days => gonococcal (copious discharge; administer ceftriaxone and admit); >5 days => chlamydia (treat with oral erythromycin; consider pneumonia).
8) Conjunctivitis + contact lens wearer: Ointment or drops must cover Pseudomonas.
9) Acute angle closure glaucoma: May present with nausea/vomiting, headache, altered mental status. Know classic physical exam findings. Know medications to treat condition and order in which they are administered.
10) Hyphema: Know how it looks clinically. Traumatic or spontaneous (sickle cell patients at risk). Typically, ½ or more of anterior chamber gets admitted but depends on ophthalmologist. Treatment: protect eye, elevate head of bed, identify etiology and address, Ophtho in ED vs. urgent follow-up.
From Dr. Katy Hanson at Hanson’s Anatomy: