Category Name: TOXCards


Toxcard: Kratom

What is kratom and is it safe? What considerations should the emergency physician have for patients who use kratom?


ToxCard: Anthrax

How does anthrax present? What is the evaluation and treatment?


ToxCard: Colchicine Toxicity

Colchicine toxicity can be deadly. This ToxCard looks at the pathophysiology, evaluation, and management.


ToxCard: Paraquat Toxicity

Paraquat is a herbicide that is rapidly absorbed and undergoes redox-cycling with generation of ROS causing cellular dysfunction and death. Tolerate hypoxia and avoid oxygen as it can promote oxidative stress and causes further tissue damage.


ToxCard: Chasing the Dragon

Chasing the Dragon refers to the practice of heroin inhalation by placing heroin in a small square of aluminum foil which is then heated from below. As the heroin melts it turns into a reddish-brown substance that may resemble a dragon’s tail. Inhaling heroin may induce toxic leukoencephalopathy, which has no proven treatment and recovery, if any, is prolonged.


ToxCard: Cotton Fever

What's cotton fever and its mechanism of action? How should you manage a patient you suspect is suffering from cotton fever?


ToxCard: Green Urine?

Diquat is a bipyridyl compound used as an herbicide and is a rare form of poisoning. Diagnosis is made by history and urine sodium dithionite test with green coloration (dose related color intensity) of the urine.