recent articles

clinical cases

Chief Complaint: "Seizures"

Chief Complaint: “Seizures” History of Present Illness: 25-year-old male with no PMHx, BIBEMS after he had episode of tonic-clonic seizure. As per wife, who gave medical history, the patient was found down in a hotel with "his whole body shaking."  Upon EMS arrival, he was given 5mg of Valium. On arrival to the ED, patient combative, not following commands with frothy oral secretions.  Wife endorses that patient has had weakness, dizziness, and malaise x 3 days, but no other complaints. Patient had another seizure while in the ER without regaining full consciousness. [...]

practice updates

ICP Management Update

Author: Albert Arslan, MD and Anthony Scoccimarro, MD (Resident Physicians, Lincoln Emergency Medicine) // Edited by: Alex Koyfman, MD (@EMHighAK, EM Attending Physician, UTSW / Parkland Memorial Hospital)   Prevent and Identify – the ED’s equivalent of Search & Rescue when managing elevated Intracranial Pressures (ICP). The causes of elevated ICP are typically described in the context […]

practice updates

Capnography in the ED

Continuous quantitative waveform capnography, also known as end-tidal carbon dioxide, PetCO2, or ETCO2, is a measurement of the partial pressure of CO2 in the exhaled breath. This technology has been around since the mid-19th century and only relatively recently has its potential in emergency medicine begun to be explored. [...]

Ask Me Anything

Ask Me Anything – Kevin Klauer, DO, EJD, FACEP

We're excited to announce our next AMA: Kevin Klauer will be with us TODAY: Tuesday, September 2nd, from 2-4pm CST.

Some background on Dr. Klauer from his bio page on

  • Chief Medical Officer of Emergency Medicine Physicians, one of the leading providers of emergency medical services in the nation
  • Has received the ACEP National Faculty Teaching Award and the EMRA Robert J. Dougherty Teaching Fellowship Award
  • He is the ACEP Council Vice Speaker and serves as Medical Editor-in-Chief for ACEP Now
  • Co-author of two risk management books: Emergency Medicine Bouncebacks: Medical and Legal and Risk Management and the Emergency Department: Executive Leadership for Protecting Patients and Hospitals
Hope you can join us!  
Live Blog Ask Me Anything with Kevin Klauer

practice updates

A #FOAMed Roadmap to Permissive Hypotension

Included below is a summary of numerous blog posts and podcasts that discuss the sometimes controversial issue of permissive hypotension or minimum volume resuscitation in the bleeding trauma patient.

The Basics

  • Idea of keeping BP low in traumatic hemorrhage to avoid “popping the clot”
  • Based mostly on data from animal trials and penetrating trauma in humans
  • Common practice in most major trauma centers in USA
  • The exact approach still remains controversial around the world
Disclaimer: These are highlights as interpreted by the author of this article and should not replace listening to the original podcast or reviewing the background research.  Posts are in chronological order and many of the below podcasts go beyond the scope of permissive hypotension. [...]

practice updates

End Tidal CO2 in TBI

Does End Tidal CO2 correlate with PaCO2 in Traumatic Brain Injury? Your neurosurgeons and trauma team have accepted a transfer to your hospital for intensive management of a trauma patient who presented to a small community hospital with a traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and epidural hematoma after being involved in a motorcycle accident. Upon arrival with the critical care transport team, the patient is already intubated and stable on a a ventilator with appropriate sedation and stable hemodynamics. However, the neurosurgeons are in the operating room managing a spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage and there are no available ICU beds due to multiple gun shot victims from a gang fight that you finished admitting. While the patient is in the ED, the neurosurgeons recommend maintaining eucapnea for the patient since while there are no acute signs of herniation.(1) Can you use the end tidal CO2(etCO2) or do you need to rely on arterial blood gas (ABG) measurements to maintain PaCO2 between 35-40 mm Hg? [...]

intern report

Rib Fractures in the Elderly

Why is it important to aggressively and appropriately manage rib fractures in elderly trauma patients? Recently, an 82 year-old male suffered a fall from standing, striking his left posterior flank against a cinder block, sustaining fractures of the left 7th-11th ribs with displacement of the 8th-11th ribs, causing a moderate L hemopneumothorax. After placement of a chest tube, drainage of the hemothorax, and reinflation of the L lung, the patient was then transferred to our facility “for management of his rib fractures”. Given that this patient was going to be managed non-operatively, I found myself wondering why would this patient require transfer for such a seemingly common problem among trauma patients. Rib fractures are present in 10% of all traumas, and in 30% of chest trauma specifically. After assuming care of the patient, I quickly began to realize why this patient was given such a high level of attention. [...]